ХАЧИГТ ХАЛДВАРААС СЭРГИЙЛЬЕ

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Нян, вирус, эгэл биетний аль нэгнээр халдварлагдсан халдвартай хачиг хүнийг хазаж, өвчин үүсгэгчийг дамжуулж өвчлүүлнэ. Дэлхий дахинд хачгаар дамждаг нийт 28 төрлийн халдвар байдгаас манай орны хувьд хүн амын дунд хачигт риккетсиоз, хачигт боррелиоз, хачигт энцефалит зэрэг хачгийн 3 төрлийн халдвар бүртгэгддэг.
Хачигт риккетсиоз өвчин
Энэ өвчний дамжуулагч нь риккетси гэдэг нянгаар халдварлагдсан Дермацентор нуталли буюу малын хачиг юм.

Малын хачиг нь жил бүрийн 3 дугаар сарын сүүлчээс идэвхжиж, салхиар хаа сайгүй зөөгдөн тархаж, 4 дүгээр сард идэвхжлийнхээ үед хүнийг хазах нь элбэг байдаг. Манай улсын хувьд хаврын улиралд салхи ихтэй байдгаас хачиг салхиар зөөвөрлөгдөн хот суурин газрын иргэдийг ч хазаж өвчлүүлэх тохиолдол байдаг. ХӨСҮТ-ийн судалгаагаар хачигт риккетсиозоор өвчлөгсөдийн 22.2% нь Улаанбаатар хот орчимд хачигт хазуулсан гэсэн өгүүлэмжтэй байна. Уг халдвар нь манай улсад өргөн тархсан, 21 аймгийн 160 гаруй суманд бүртгэгддэг. Хачигт риккетсиозоор өвчлөгсөдийн 72.1% нь 4-6 дугаар сард уг халдварт өртсөн байна. Халдвар авсан хүнд хачигт хазуулсанаас хойш дунджаар 3-7 хоногийн дараа халуурах, толгой өвдөх, хачиг хазсан газар үрэвсч, тавших, ойролцоох тунгалгийн булчирхай цочиж, эмзэглэх, биеэр гөвдрүүт тууралт гарах зэрэг шинж тэмдгүүд илэрдэг. Бэлчээрийн хачиг нь ихэвчлэн хүний толгойн орой, дагзны хэсэгт хазаж, цус сорон шимэгчилдэг. Бага насны хүүхдүүд биедээ орсон хачгийг богино хугацаанд илрүүлэн авч чаддаггүйгээс хачигт халдварт илүүтэй өртдөг. Уг халдвараар өвчлөгсөдийн дийлэнх буюу 44.5%-ийг 0-9 насны хүүхдүүд эзэлдэг.

Хачигт боррелиоз өвчин

Хачигт боррелиоз, хачигт энцефалит зэрэг өвчнүүд нь ойн болон тайгын хачгаар дамждаг. Хачигт боррелиоз өвчин нь боррел гэдэг нянгаар үүсгэгддэг, мэдрэл, зүрх судасны тогтолцоо, арьс салст, үе мөчний эмгэгээр илэрдэг, байгалийн голомтот халдварт өвчин юм.

Манай улсын 10 гаруй аймгийн 52 суманд бүртгэгддэг. Ихэвчлэн уг халдварын байгалийн голомтот газарт оршин суугчид, ажил хөдөлмөр эрхлэгчид халдварт илүүтэй өртдөг. Хачигт хазуулсанаас хойш дунджаар 7-14 хоногийн дараа халуурах, толгой өвдөх, ядрах, сульдах, булчингаар өвдөх, дотор муухайрах шинж тэмдэг илэрнэ. Хачиг хазсан газарт улайж үрэвсэх, өвдөх, 5-60 см хүртэл цагираг хэлбэрийн улайлт үүсэх зэрэг шинж тэмдэг илэрдэг. Ойн хачиг ихэвчлэн гуя, цавь, суга, бүсэлхий, тахимны хонхорт хазаж, улайлт үүсгэнэ. Өвчлөгсөдийн 40-50%-д цагираг хэлбэрийн улайлт илэрдэг.

Эмчилгээ хийгээгүй тохиолдолд үе мөч, зүрх судас, мэдрэлийн тогтолцооны талаас өөрчлөлтүүд илэрч, эмчлэхэд хүндрэл учирдаг. Өвчний эрт үед эмнэлэгт хандан эмчилгээ хийлгэвэл үр дүн сайн байдаг.
Хачигт энцефалит өвчин нь төв мэдрэлийн системийг гэмтээдэг флавивирусээр үүсгэгддэг. Уг өвчний дамжуулагч болох 2 зүйлийн хачиг нь ихэвчлэн 5 дугаар сарын эхээс эхлэн идэвхжиж, байгалийн голомттой газруудад аялаж зугаалах, мал хариулах, мод бэлтгэх, самар, эмийн ургамал түүх үед хүнийг хазаж халдварлуулна. Мөн халдвар авсан хонь, ямаа, үхрийн түүхий сүү, цус уух, шүүрхий мах идэх үед хүн халдвар авна. Өвчлөгсөдийн 66.8%-ийг эрэгтэйчүүд эзэлж, өвчлөлийн 62.5% нь 6-8 дугаар сард бүртгэгддэг. Манай улсын 12 аймгийн 45 суманд уг халдвар бүртгэгдсэнээс Булган аймгийн Бугат, Хялганат, Сэлэнгэ аймгийн Бугант, Мандал, Ерөө, Хүдэр, Сүхбаатар, Хэнтий аймгийн Батширээт, Биндэр, Дадал зэрэг сумдад хамгийн олон тохиолдол бүртгэгджээ. Хачигт энцефалитын вирусээр халдварлагдсан хачигт хазуулсанаас хойш 7-14 хоногт өндөр халуурч чичрэх, толгой хүчтэй өвдөх, огиулах, бөөлжих, хүзүү, нуруу, мөчдийн булчингаар хүчтэй өвдөх, эрвэгнэх, чичрэх, татах зэрэг шинж тэмдгүүд илэрнэ. Зарим үед ухаан алдах, татах, хөөрлийн байдалд орох зэрэг шинж тэмдгүүд илэрдэг. Улмаар зарим эрхтний саажилт, тэнэгрэл зэрэг хүндрэлүүд илэрч, хөдөлмөрийн чадварыг алдагдуулдаг.

Хачигт халдвараас сэргийлэхийн тулд танд дараах зүйлсийг зөвлөж байна.

1. Иргэд хачгийн идэвхжлийн үед буюу 4-10 дугаар сард биедээ ялангуяа толгойн үстэй хэсэгт хачиг орсон эсэхийг өдөр тутамд шалгаж байх
2. Хөдөө явахдаа хачгийг илрүүлэхийн тулд тод өнгийн хувцас өмсч явах, хачиг илэрсэн тохиолдолд яаралтай авч хаях
3. Хөдөө болон ойд явахдаа урт ханцуйтай хувцас, урт түрийтэй гутал, зузаан өмд өмсч, хачиг нэвтрүүлэхгүйн тулд өмдний шуумгыг гутлын түрүүний дотуур хийх, боломжтой бол хачиг үргээгч бодисыг хувцасны ханцуй, өмд уруу цацаж хэрэглэх
4. Хэрвээ эмнэлэгт хандах боломжгүй газарт хачигт хазуулсан бол хазсан хачиг дээр эмнэлгийн цэнхэр спиртээр 2-3 удаа арчилт хийж, 1-2 минут хүлээгээд хавчаараар 45 градусын налуу өнцгөөр зөөлөн татаж авна. Хачиг хазсан хэсэгт 1%-ийн повидон иодын уусмал (тамедины уусмал)-ыг хөвөнд шингээж, цэвэр боолт хийнэ.

5. Хачигт хазуулсан тохиолдолд сэргийлэх зорилгоор эмчилгээ хийлгэх шаардлагатай тул яаралтай эмнэлэгт хандах нь зүйтэй.
6. Хачигт хазуулсанаас хойш 3-14 хоногийн дотор халуурах, толгой өвдөх, хачиг хазсан газарт цагираг хэлбэрийн улайлт үүсэх, үрэвсч шархлах, арьсан дээр гөвдрүүт тууралт гарах, огиулах, бөөлжих, нуруу, хүзүүний булчин хүчтэй өвдөх, эрвэгнэх, чичрэх, татах зэрэг шинж тэмдэг илэрвэл яаралтай эмнэлэгт хандах шаардлагатай.
7. Хачигт халдварын байгалийн голомтот ойн бүсэд ажиллаж, амьдарч байгаа иргэд хачигт энцефалит өвчнөөс сэргийлэх вакцин тариулах
8. Ямаа, үхрийн түүхий сүү, цус зэргийг уухгүй байх, эдгээр амьтдын махыг сайтар болгож хэрэглэх
9. Хачигт хазуулсанаас хойш 3-14 хоногийн дотор халуурах, толгой өвдөх, хачиг хазсан газарт цагираг хэлбэрийн улайлт үүсэх, үрэвсч шархлах, арьсан дээр гөвдрүүт тууралт гарах, огиулах, бөөлжих, нуруу, хүзүүний булчин хүчтэй өвдөх, эрвэгнэх, чичрэх, татах зэрэг шинж тэмдэг илэрвэл яаралтай эмнэлэгт хандах нь зүйтэй.

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